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A young arriero leads a mule across fresh snow in the Peruvian Andes. Photo by Benjamin Swift (2016 Fall Semester Photo Contest Finalist), South America Semester.

Ten Inherent Rights of Mountains

  1. A Mountain’s right to its own ecosystem, and the extension of a Mountain’s rights to all beings and things within its immediate ecosystem.

  2. A Mountain’s right to retain their natural structure.

  3. Freedom from excessive and destructive human influence.

  4. A Mountain’s right to human recognition of their inherent value: separate from utilitarian and economic value factors.

  5. A Mountain’s right and a human responsibility to a reciprocal relationship in terms of resources and resource value. If We take We give.

  6. A Mountain’s right to sustainable human treatment and recreation.

  7. A Mountains right to unimpeded waterways.

  8. A Mountain’s right to clean air.

  9. A Mountain’s right to progress and evolve naturally.

  10. A Mountain’s right to human stewardship.


The Andes Leadership Semester, a collaborative program with the High Mountain Institute












Photo by Will